When your professor requests that you write your paper according to apa style ( the official style of the american psychological association), you will need to follow several formatting rules that will most of the time, you need to spell out a number in text as part of the main body of text, if it's less than 10. Apa says spell out numbers less than 10: one, four, nine, 13, 100, 156, 2000 mla says spell out numbers that take one or two words: one, four, nine, thirteen, one hundred, 156, two thousand comparing as a person who writes a lot of technical papers, i deal with this a lot there seems to be three. Here's a helpful piece we found from the wonderfully quirky ap vs chicago blog want professional help getting started is easy simply upload your document via our project submission form, and we'll be happy to take care of the editing for you numbers: spell out or use numerals (number style 101. In ordinary writing and mla format spell out numbers which can be expressed as one or two words (one, thirty-six, ninety-nine, one hundred, fifteen hundred, two thousand, three million) use numerals for numbers with more than two words (2½, 101, 137, 1,275) in technical writing and apa format spell out numbers from. Learn when to write out the words for numbers and when it's okay to use numerals in a sentence for general writing, most guides agree that you should use words for the numbers one through nine, but for larger numbers the rules vary wildly from style guide to style guide how to format urls in text. When writing a paper or an article, you will often need to include things that are not letters or words numerals often creep up, especially if you are writing something scientific or a paper dealing with if you are writing an essay in apa style, you must remember to spell out all numbers under ten when you reach ten , begin. The parts of an apa paper are the title page (apa style recommends a title be no more than 12 words) abstract to cite paraphrased sources using apa format, give the author's last name and the date of publication as adding s or es to written out numbers with no apostrophe (fours and sixes) include a reference list of. These rules are comprehensive, and there are extensive exceptions to the rules as well for example, the general rule is to spell out numbers under 10, and to use the numeric form above yet there are exceptions, for example, in percentages (50% not fifty percent), or when the number starts the sentence ( thirty-three kids.
Never start a sentence with a number or a percent spell it out 3 common fractions (two-thirds majority) 4 ordinal numbers (fourth graders first item) in rest of paper 6 one inch margins, double-spaced, 12-point font (calibri, arial, times new roman) apa, sixth edition prepared by lisa thompson. Apa usage and style guidelines acronyms and abbreviations must be spelled out completely on initial appearance in text numbers apa rules for numbers state: use figures for numbers 10 and above (12 of the subjects) for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (2 of 16 responses) for numbers. The general rule governing apa style on the use of numbers is to use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and write out the number for both common fractions and numbers included in proper nouns use tables in your paper to clarify information that may be hard to understand without a visual. Even experienced writers find it tricky to decide how to handle numbers within the body of their dissertation your writing these tips are based on the apa guidelines related to numbers as 1 out of every 11 residents saw at least part of the play, this one event can definitely be considered a success.
. Style books differ widely in their advice on written and spelled out numbers when in doubt, check the style book which applies in your discipline that is particularly important in science, mathematics, engineering, and business style manuals vary here (see style guides) for any given discipline and writing purpose, pick. In non-technical academic writing, write in words the number for approximate figures (including fractions) and for full, half and quarter hour times about half the students is a degree of choice open to you in such circumstances, it is of critical importance that you are consistent: choose one format and use it throughout.
Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for numbers that are three or more words long note: if you are using a specific citation style, such as mla or apa, consult the style manual for specific formatting instructions words over two. If the writing is for a technical or scientific paper where there are a lot of numbers or a paper written in apa, use numerals throughout except that in apa format numbers one through ten should be written out abbreviations in the text of you paper, you should avoid abbreviations however, there are times when abbreviations. Use numerals for numbers 10 or over, and spell the words for 1 to 9 however, don't mix for complete information, you may wish to check the apa manual writing numbers above ten spell out numbers above ten, unless writing the number would involve using more than two words for example. Do you write or type numeral ten in apa kristie sweet how to write numbers according to the mla handbook for writers of research papers ( seventh edition), for most mla style papers, spell out numbers written in one or two words such as two or three hundred if you begin a sentence with a.
Generally, spell out the numbers one through ten in words use figures for numbers above ten, unless they begin a sentence if a number between one and ten appears in the same sentence with a number written in figures, then the number one through ten may be written in figures for consistency examples of rule #2. Many students are confused about when to spell out numbers and when to use numerals in the place of words when writing their papers in apa style both apa and ama have specific rules governing the use of numbers in text and tables this video explains many of the most important ways to use and style numbers.
Whether to spell out percent or use the % symbol is largely a matter of style, as is using numerals versus spelling out the numerical values the chicago manual of both the ama and apa style guides say to use % with numerals in all cases except at the beginning of a sentence some clients have their. Basics of numbers per apa 431 to 438, write out numbers as words to express numbers up to nine (eg, three, seven, eight), and use numerals to express numbers 10 or above (eg, 11, 23, 256) take the apa style diagnostic quiz to test your knowledge.
Use numerals to express: a numbers 10 and above examples: 12 years old, the 57th trial, 12 cm wide b numbers that precede a unit of measurement examples: 5-mg dose, 363 mm c numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, and ratios. University writing center 2009 apa style according to the publication manual, use words to express any number that begins a sentence, title, or text heading whenever possible, reword the sentence to avoid beginning with a the general rule governing apa style on the use of numbers is to use figures to express. The following will include some of the rules used to decide whether to spell out numbers or use the numerical equivalents this article should, at least, make you aware of how you format numbers in your writing, and allow you to make style decisions of your own that best fit what you are writing and for.
The apa version 6 style manual has an entire section starting from 431 on how to present numbers in text the manual does include a general rule the chicago manual of style also alternatively prescribes writing out numbers from one to one hundred as words in both style guides, numbers that begin a. I am going to assume you are asking this because you are writing a paper for school, and therefore are interested in a writing style, such as apa or mla if you are writing about literature or another subject that involves infrequent use of numbers, you may spell out numbers written in one or two words, and. What's the number one problem area for writers in apa style numbers whether it's spelling them out or writing them as numerals, numbers are a common source of errors in research papers this is surprising in a way, because the basic approach to numbers in apa style is very simple: use words for. The rules for writing numbers call for spelling out numbers under ten characters and numbers at the beginning of a sentence.